AWS BLOG

The Ideal Team Player

By Jean Miner, MD

In all aspects of our lives, we are members of a “team”. We are members of our family “team” first and then head to school at a young age and are paired off on the playground. Many of us joined teams throughout our lives for sports, debate, math, dance, etc… As we get older, we start to value the importance of teamwork to accomplish goals or projects. Think about the college chemistry lab partners or the members of a committee who helped (or hindered) meet deadlines or complete tasks. As surgeons, we are always members of a team- in the operating room, clinic, and patient wards. Ultimately, in life we belong to numerous teams.Recently, the members of the AWS Clinical Practice Committee (CPC) held a book club discussion using The Ideal Team Player by Patrick Lencioni. Our lively discussion quickly turned into a focus on leadership and building the ideal team. Based on the importance of this topic, we will be hosting a tweetchat on November 27th focused on Leadership and The Ideal Team Player. Three virtues, humility, hunger, and people smarts, are what we look for in those alongside of us taking care of patients, in our office, on a committee and even at home.

  • Humility: Characterized by lack of excessive ego or concerns about status. Humble team players share credit and emphasize team over self.
  • Hunger: Defined by self motivation and diligence. Hungry team players are always looking for more things to do and learn.
  • People Smarts: Depicted by possessing common sense about people. Smart team players are intuitive around the subtleties of group dynamics and the impact of their words and actions.

What do we do when we lead a team with members deficient in one, two or maybe all three areas? Should we give up on them? Are we able to teach these qualities or is it nature vs nurture? If we want to be good and effective leaders, we need to try and help our team members before kicking them to the curb. First, we should assess our colleagues to establish where they rank on the three traits. As both team leaders and members, we should do this ourselves. Other key members of the team can (and should) also be included. Next, we meet with the teammate to discuss our findings and develop a game plan. Often when there are deficiencies identified, people are unaware and improvements can be made just by bringing it to their attention. For more challenging situations, we need to set small achievable goals paired with frequent feedback. Finally, after a set period of time, we must reassess the situation and determine if we now have a set of ideal team players. If not, just like in professional sports, we must consider trading members to other teams where they would be a better fit and acquiring new players that fit the project.

Most importantly, we also need to turn the microscope on ourselves. Are we good team players? Most of us would like to think we are, but it is definitely worth a few minutes of self-reflection or use of a self-assessment tool in determining if we are indeed good team members. Or just like we did with our own team, we can ask a leader or mentor to evaluate us. After identifying areas to improve, we need to set our own goals based on the three virtues. If humility or people smarts are issues, we need to make a point to listen and learn more about our team members. This allows us to exercise humility but also gain insight into our counterparts as we take the time to hear their opinions. Hunger can be more difficult to achieve without an interest in the project. If this is a deficient area, we must consider alternative methods for achieving the same outcomes with a process that will motivate us. Or we may need to request off of a project in exchange for one which inspires us to do our best work.

Ultimately, for the development of a high performing team ALL members should embody the virtues of humility, hunger and people smarts and the process of building our team can be as enlightening as what we accomplish together.

Please join the CPC on November 27 at 8pm EST for a tweetchat on “The Ideal Team Player” to discuss your own strategies and experience as a leader and ideal team player.

https://www.tablegroup.com/books/ideal-team-player


Jean Miner is Assistant DIO at Guthrie Hospital in Sayre, PA and a Surgical Attending with Guthrie’s General Surgery Residency. She also has a Masters in Medical Education Leadership from the University of New England. Her work life is in equilibrium with her personal life as a mother of three girls who loves spending time with her husband and family traveling the country and world. In her “spare time” she loves to cook, be outdoors and read as many books as she can.

Our blog is a forum for our members to speak, and as such, statements made here represent the opinions of the author, and are not necessarily the opinion of the Association of Women Surgeons.

When Disaster Strikes

By Dr. Minerva Romero Arenas

#HoustonStrong #HurricaneIrma #FuerzaMéxico #PRstrong #VegasStrong

Our world has been in the midst of what seems like an endless series of tragedies. This blog started out as an idea to write about how I was inspired and proud of the goodwill shown by my fellow Houstonians (and other Texans and neighbors) in the aftermath of hurricane Harvey. Much like this love letter. Much like my colleague’s reminder to look for the helpers when disaster strikes. However, it quickly became a seemingly insurmountable task. Just as I was trying to pen a few lines, another disaster was brewing in the Atlantic. Then the earthquakes hit México. Another set of hurricanes. Yet another mass shooting.

Staying safe. Trying to help. Then trying to keep up with everyone’s safety and figuring out how to help in the aftermath. Donate. Volunteer. Meteorological maps seemed like something that could only have come out of a Hollywood blockbuster. I can’t imagine that I would find it essential to follow @NWSNHC, @SismologicoMX, or @weatherchannel? And if I never have to sleep with an eye open for flash flood warnings or tornado warnings… it may be too soon.

To be quite honest, there were a lot of days the past 6 weeks that seem like a blur.

Thankfully, I had my work to help keep my mind (and hands) occupied! I am thankful for the teamwork shown at our hospital, where 1 in 3 employees were affected. Colleagues swam to work, camped out for days unable to assess the safety of their own families or homes, and everyone who boldly came back to offer relief as soon as it was reasonable to do so. It was amazing to see the “good neighbor” spirit that was showcased from Houston to the world – an example to be seen again in tragedy after tragedy.

On a personal note, I have found a way to turn these events into a positive by taking time to reflect on everything. I have made more time than before to actually consider important questions like, am I okay? Am I putting my best effort to live a meaningful life? How can I be part of the solution? Have I done everything I can to help others?

I am thankful for the human spirit and solidarity that continues to shine through disaster after disaster. I am thankful more of our ACS leadership continues to engage in meaningful discussion about firearm injuries. Most of all I am thankful for my colleagues, friends, and *my family* – their compassion, determination, and strength is truly inspiring and figuratively and literally helped me “weather the storm.”

A message from the AWS Blog Team: This is the first in a series of blogs from surgeons who wish to share their experience during these trying times. If you wish to share your story, you may email blog@womensurgeons.org.

Minerva A. Romero Arenas is an Endocrine & General Surgeon joining the faculty at the University of Texas Rio Grande Valley. She completed a fellowship in Oncologic Surgical Endocrinology at the UT MD Anderson Cancer Center in Houston, TX. She completed her General Surgery Residency at Sinai Hospital of Baltimore. She received her MD and her MPH from The University of Arizona College of Medicine and the Zuckerman College of Public Health in 2009. She studied Cell Biology and French at Arizona State University as an undergraduate.
Her interests include surgical oncology & endocrinology, global health, health disparities, quality improvement, and genomics. A native of Mexico City, Mexico, Dr. Romero Arenas is passionate about recruiting the next generation of surgeons and is involved in mentoring through various organizations.
She enjoys fine arts, films, gastronomy, and sports. She enjoys jogging, swimming, and kickboxing. Most importantly, Dr. Romero Arenas treasures spending time with her family and loved ones.


Our blog is a forum for our members to speak, and as such, statements made here represent the opinions of the author, and are not necessarily the opinion of the Association of Women Surgeons.

 

For When the Pipe Bursts

By Shree Agrawal

Approximately half of matriculated medical students identify as female with numbers in surgical training steadily increasing to potentially also account for half of postgraduate trainees. Unfortunately, these figures are still dismal for underrepresented minorities, who at the medical school level may, at best, represent one in twelve students. I can only hope this changes for my underrepresented peers in my lifetime as we continue to redefine the culture of medicine.

Within AWS and in medical training, the metaphor of “building a pipeline” represents creating greater access and entry to medicine among women and underrepresented minorities. In this context, I often wonder about the students and trainees who currently have the courage to enter fields in which the majority is homogenous. Advances in gender equality and diversity representation within other fields of medicine, such as pediatrics, OB/GYN, psychiatry, and geriatrics, has not yet translated to inclusion in leadership and academic positions. I believe mentorship is key to addressing this paucity of diverse role models.

This brings me to some of the great posts I have recently seen on Twitter about mentorship within academic surgery. My feed has been populated with retweeted clips, links, or visual abstracts from Dr. Caprice Greenberg’s address, “Sticky Floors and Glass Ceilings”, Dr. Keith Lillemoe’s address, “Surgical Mentorship: A Great Tradition, But Can We Do Better for the Next Generation?”, and “Characteristics of Effective Mentorship for Academic Surgeons: A Grounded Theory Model,” by Drs. Amalia Cochran, William B. Elder, and Leigh A. Neumayer. In 2017, I view these pieces to be the first sign of preparation for when the pipeline to surgery eventually bursts.

As more diverse medical students develop interest in surgery, dynamic and supportive mentorship becomes even more essential. From Drs. Cochran, Elder, and Neumayer’s work, four major themes for effective mentorship emerged: the need for multiple mentors at different points in a professional lifetime, mentors who provide strategic advising, who are unselfish in their attitude, and engage with diverse mentees. In addition to these basic principles, self-awareness of implicit bias and efforts to reduce its effect, as stated in Dr. Greenberg’s talk, is paramount in effective mentoring, especially of non-traditional mentees.

In medical school, this may translate to finding a mentor who is willing to meet often and create plans for successfully matching or perhaps engaging in academic research. An unselfish attitude may be a sincere interest in helping achieve one’s potential, regardless of institutional interests or personal/professional gains for the mentor. Finding mentors who engage with diverse mentees does not mean identifying faculty members who represent similar backgrounds, but finding someone who understands distinct challenges faced by students from wide-ranging backgrounds. A single mentor may not be able to espouse all of these characteristics, but finding individuals who can contribute in each area facilitates personal and professional development.

What are your strategies for identifying and establishing effective mentee-mentor relationships in your medical training?


Shree is a fourth year medical student at Case Western Reserve University, where she also completed her bachelors of science degree in biology. Currently, she is completing a clinical research fellowship in genitourinary reconstruction at the Glickman Urological and Kidney Institute at Cleveland Clinic and serving as the Chair of the AWS National Medical Student Committee. Shree is passionate about research surrounding patient decision-making and medical education. In her free time, she enjoys blogging for AWS, practicing yoga, and boxing.

Our blog is a forum for our members to speak, and as such, statements made here represent the opinions of the author and are not necessarily the opinion of the Association of Women Surgeons.

Perception of Personal Success in Burnout

By Shree Agrawal

In the preclinical years of medical school, the idea of burnout among healthcare workers is more of an abstract concept. The unique environment of healthcare, regardless of specialty or academic/private practice settings, has been shown to make all healthcare providers vulnerable to burnout.(1)(2) In my observations on clinical rotations, it seems highly successful peers, trainees, and faculty, who may have multiple publications, excellent clinical skills, and a strong work ethic, can also be the same individuals who unexpectedly experience burnout. Interactions with someone who does not realize they may actually be experiencing burnout are challenging, even for individuals who are at the fray of most clinical situations.

Some of the key manifestations of burnout include emotional exhaustion, cynicism, depersonalization or isolation, feelings of ineffectiveness, and lack of accomplishment, as shown in Figure 1.(3) Some of these features are difficult to fully notice in brief professional interactions with peers and superiors. Instead, common outward defining behaviors in burnout may be a focus on professional survival, fewer reflective practices, reduced desire to be at work, and/or a diminishing appeal of clinical and non-clinical activities.(4)

Figure 1: Factors contributing to and subsequent manifestations of burnout

For all the successes visible to the outsider, the relevance of personal and professional accomplishments to the person, who may be burned out, appear less significant. A component of this perception could be individual focus on future goals and milestones. Regardless, I am curious. Does the perception of personal success change in the process of burnout? Do achievements seem less worthy in the face of factors contributing to burnout?

Even though I would posit my observations are a multifactorial outcome, studies would imply this is not an uncommon phenomenon. Research within healthcare settings demonstrated insufficient recognition of employee contributions corresponded to healthcare providers feeling less respected and valuable to their organizations. This belief alone can cause providers to experience higher levels of emotional exhaustion, feelings of ineffectiveness, and subsequent burnout.(5) Another study suggests individuals who identify as a minority in society may receive less recognition and credibility for their accomplishments/capabilities when compared to their counterparts. Many minority participants in this study expressed already feeling burned out in their training. They stated their role on the team was not viewed as meaningful, or worse, unsatisfactory. Alarmingly, some minority participants not only revealed their feelings of inferiority to their peers but also doubted their own accomplishments, abilities, and personalities.(6) The infrequency or lack of recognition in healthcare both contributes to burnout and reduces individual perceptions of professional competencies and capabilities.

On the blog, we have talked about practicing gratitude and cultivating resilience in the face of burnout.(7,8,9,10) While these are important tools, I wonder if we should also encourage the practice of acknowledging both our own success ladders and those of the people working alongside us.

Outward recognition, while not common within medicine, is crucial to defining individual success. It facilitates finding value in our professional responsibilities, validates personal efforts for growth, and positively changes the perception of personal success. Recognition ultimately nurtures essential skills, traits, and resilience required in the practice of medicine.


Shree is a fourth year medical student at Case Western Reserve University, where she also completed her bachelors of science degree in biology. Currently, she is completing a clinical research fellowship in genitourinary reconstruction at the Glickman Urological and Kidney Institute at Cleveland Clinic and serving as the Chair of the AWS National Medical Student Committee. Shree is passionate about research surrounding patient decision-making and medical education. In her free time, she enjoys blogging for AWS, practicing yoga, and boxing.

Our blog is a forum for our members to speak, and as such, statements made here represent the opinions of the author and are not necessarily the opinion of the Association of Women Surgeons.

Success is a Journey

By Jaime D. Lewis, MD

Advancement up the academic ladder from grade school through college and medical school was measured by meeting well-defined milestones along a smooth and narrow pathway. Residency and fellowship introduced some variability but were accompanied by a similarly transparent structure of progression. The end of formal training felt as if I had embarked on a journey along a rocky, winding trail through dark fog aided variably by an old compass that occasionally pointed northward, or at least somewhere in the general vicinity. When I became faculty, this experience and the loss of an unambiguous measuring stick was quite disorienting leading me to feel as if I had I lost my ability to gauge my progress and my achievement of success or descent towards failure.

Through time, work, self-reflection, and connection, I am once again on a trail that I know is moving onward and upward. And as part of my plan for progress and career development, I have had the fantastic opportunity to spend the last four days as a participant in the AAMC Early Career Women Faculty Leadership Seminar. This seminar has provided me with the time, space, and tools to really consider what I want to achieve in surgery and academic medicine. I have started to let go of what is not success for me and stopped comparing myself to colleagues and mentor. Determination of success is ultimately a very personal measure.

I do know that my success requires that I understand and acknowledge what motivates and inspires me and what is core to my being. Central to my success is a commitment to my husband and children that they will always be my first priorities, a choice which is not negotiable. There is nothing in this world of greater importance and I will always be there when they need me.

I better understand those components of my work that motivate me to continue my career in academic medicine. I am motivated to cultivate and expand my mentorship network and will continue to pursue strategic relationships with those who can provide guidance along the way. And I am committed to support and educate those who will succeed me as my biggest accomplishments always evolve from meaningful relationships.

Finally, success requires that I have a strong sense of self and that I am true to that self. I will endorse my talents and opportunities and pursue those activities that fuel my passions. And I will continue to take the time I need for reflection, recovery, and growth on a regular basis.

You only live once, but if you do it right, once is enough.
-Mae West


Jaime D. Lewis MD is an Assistant Professor of Surgery and Assistant Medical Student Clerkship Director at the University of Cincinnati where she also completed her general surgery residency. After residency, she completed a fellowship in breast surgical oncology at the Moffitt Cancer Center. Her clinical interests include malignant breast diseases, oncofertility. Her research interests are ever developing. Outside of the hospital, she enjoys running, yoga, and time with her family.

Our blog is a forum for our members to speak, and as such, statements made here represent the opinions of the author and are not necessarily the opinion of the Association of Women Surgeons.

The History of the Match and the Perspective From One Medical Student’s Journey

By Hilary McCrary, MPH

Throughout all of medical school, I always looked up to the current fourth year students. They seemed so seasoned and prepared to make the transition from student to doctor. The fourth year of medical school is also highly anticipated, as it is what medical students perceive as the first time they are solely focusing on their chosen career and traveling across the country for either away rotations or interviews. Now that I am towards the end of this process, I have had time to reflect on all of the components that go into the Match and what is takes to get there.

The Match process was created in 1952 as a way to address concerns related to institutions offering a spot for residency training earlier than other competing institutions.1 This previous design put pressure on applicants to accept multiple appointments, as positions were typically offered over the phone with the intent of providing the institution an immediate answer or losing that training spot.1 This process was followed by attempts to make a uniform time for institutions to release intern positions. Ultimately, F.J. Mullin from the University of Chicago School of Medicine suggested that both students and institutions create rank-order lists that would end in a match between that individual and a hospital.2 There were growing pains associated with this transition, but the Boston Pool algorithm created a stable process in which the rank-order lists were updated as each student went through the matching process. This program became known as the National Resident Matching Program (NRMP) and is the program that is still used today.3 The most recent change to this matching algorithm came in 1998, which was aimed at making the outcomes as favorable as possible for the applicant.4 In fact, in 2012 economists Alvin Roth and Lloyd Shapley would go on to win the Nobel Prize in Economics for their contributions to creating a stable match process through their work on match theory.5 While some controversy surrounded the inception of the Match, it does provide applicants and hospitals a sensible system to determine where new physicians will spend several years of training. As attested by several students, even though not all individuals may get their top pick on Match Day, the system has a way of finding the program best suited  for each individual.

While every specialty has its own unique aspects to the Match, there is one piece of advice that I always listened to – apply broadly. As a student applying to Otolaryngology, I knew that I needed to apply to a large number of diverse programs. This serves two purposes. It allows the student to see enough programs to know what aspects of a training program will most suit their needs and it sets you up for success statistically, as the more programs you apply to the higher your odds are of matching. I applied to 70 programs across the nation, which seemed daunting at first. The process of receiving interviews was exciting and stressful. In the fall months, students receive a flurry of interviews via email, and typically must respond within minutes or that interview spot may be taken. As someone who was on a surgical rotation during this time, I found it hard to be in the operating room without worrying about what emails were popping up on my phone.

Then comes the fun part – the traveling. As someone who loves flying and exploring new places, I was most excited for this aspect of applying to residency. In total, I attended 17 interviews, in 13 different states, over the course of three months. What no one prepared me for was how exhausting this process is. There were periods of time where I had four interviews in just five days, often associated with several flight delays and arriving at my destination city in the early hours of the morning. Furthermore, this process was financially difficult as well, as this entire process cost thousands of dollars. While in the thick of the interview trail I felt challenged, however, looking back it was an incredible experience that I felt lucky to partake in. Especially since I was given the opportunity to meet my future colleagues that I will collaborate with in the future, whether this is clinically or on research endeavors.

Now I join thousands of other medical students and wait to see where this process leads me on Match Day – March 17, 2017, which happens to land on St. Patrick’s Day this year. After a lot of thought and reflection, my rank-order list is certified and waiting for processing. What I have learned is there is no right way to navigate the Match and at the end of the day it’s best to go with your gut. Really listen to what your intuition is telling you on an interview day and make sure to ask questions that are important to you. Take risks, as programs you never thought would be what you are looking for or be within your reach might be the perfect fit for you. Finally, seek advice from your mentors who understand your career goals; their insight can be invaluable in helping create your rank-order list. Best of luck to all medical students and future surgeons participating in the Match this year!

 

References:

1)    Roth AE. The Origins, History, and Design of the Resident Match. JAMA. 2003;289(7):909-912.

2)    Mullin FJ. A proposal for supplementing the Cooperative Plan for appointment of interns.  J Assoc Am Med Coll.1950;25:437-442.

3)    Roth AE. The evolution of the labor market for medical interns and residents: a case study in game theory.  J Political Economy.1984;92:991-1016.

4)    Roth AE, Peranson E. The redesign of the matching market for American physicians: some engineering aspects of economic design.  Am Econ Rev.1999;89:748-780.

5)    Rampell C. “2 From U.S. Win Nobel in Economics”. The New York Times. Published October 15, 2012. Accessed on February 11, 2017.

 


 

Hilary McCrary is the Chair of the AWS Medical Student Committee and is a fourth year medical student at the University of Arizona College of Medicine – Tucson. She is currently applying to otolaryngology and hopes to practice in an academic setting where she can operate, teach, and conduct research. hcrees@email.arizona.edu

 

Our blog is a forum for our members to speak, and as such, statements made here represent the opinions of the author and are not necessarily the opinion of the Association of Women Surgeons.

March is Colorectal Cancer Awareness Month!

By: Heather Yeo, MD, MHS

March is Colorectal Cancer Awareness month an important time to talk about Colorectal Cancer, because it is a time of national focus and provides an opportunity for education and prevention for a common, but often “hidden” form of cancer.

One of the reasons that I decided to spend my life treating colorectal cancer is because of the exciting progress that has been made in its detection, understanding, and treatment over the last decade and the potential for even greater progress on the horizon. While I deal with colorectal cancer every day, as I am caring for my patients, I am always researching ways to improve their care and quality of life.

A few key points I would like patients to think about:

Prevention is Key.
There are certain risk factors that we know put individuals at higher risk, for example, consumption of red meat, smoking, and obesity all put patients at higher risk. Understanding family risk factors is important as well, first degree relatives with colon cancer, BRCA mutations, or any hereditary cancer syndrome should discuss their risk with a genetic counselor. There is some evidence that frequent long term aspirin use in individuals at risk may slow polyp formation and decrease the risk of colon cancer.

Screening Matters.
Colorectal cancer is the second most common cancer in the United States, affecting men and women of all ages. While it is most common after the age of 60, due to screening, it has been decreasing overall in the US population. Screening colonoscopy is recommended for all adults starting at the age of 50 or 10 years before any first degree relatives were diagnosed in those with a family history.

However, for unknown reasons, early onset cancer is on the rise, so don’t ignore symptoms in young patients, particularly those that don’t go away after treatment.

Treatments are effective for localized cancer.

The good news is that cancers that are detected early are often cured with surgery alone. Those that have spread locally still have very good cure rates, but may require chemotherapy (you usually don’t lose your hair with newer medications available). When cancer is found at more advanced stage, medication can help slow their spread and certain measures can help people have good quality of life.

There is nothing to be ashamed of.
Colorectal cancer is not sexually transmitted or contagious, people of all ages, races and cultures are at risk. For many people there is a stigma associated with it because they are embarrassed to talk about digestive problems. I think the most important advice I can give, is to not ignore your symptoms. Colorectal surgeons and surgical oncologists are specially trained to deal with surgical problems of the GI tract and will treat you with respect and dignity. Because this is a common cancer, there are resources, support groups, and integrative therapies that may help you deal with the disease. Don’t be afraid to ask your physician for some of these resources. I have included some helpful links below.

Additional Resources
Society of Surgical Oncology Colon and Rectal Cancer Page
American Cancer Society
Colon Cancer Alliance
National Cancer Institute – Surveillance Epidemiology and End results


Heather Yeo, MD, MHS, is Assistant Professor of Surgery and Assistant Professor of Public Health at Weill Cornell Medical College and Assistant Attending Surgeon at New York-Presbyterian/Weill Cornell Medical Center. She is board-certified in general surgery, colon and rectal surgery and complex general surgical oncology. Dr. Yeo has a Master’s in Health Services Research and is focused on surgical outcomes and quality improvement in Gastrointestinal Cancer Surgery. Dr. Yeo became involved with AWS after receiving the 2013 AWS-Ethicon Fellowship Grant and is currently a co-chair of the AWS Communications Committee.

Our blog is a forum for our members to speak, and as such, statements made here represent the opinions of the author and are not necessarily the opinion of the Association of Women Surgeons.

 

Negotiating Your Worth

By Melany Hughes

Hiring Entity
“No. That won’t work for us.”
Job-Seeking Physician
“Ok, that’s fine then.”
I’m not going to cry.
I’m not going to cry.
Ugh, are those tears?
Am I crying?
Did they notice?

Hiring Entity
“Do you need a minute?”
Job-Seeking Physician
Noooooooooooooooooo

In our worst nightmares, this is the scenario we think could unfold if we dare make demands during contract and business negotiations. Of course, in reality, it will never happen but the fear of lacking control and losing dignity can be so strong that it compels contract seekers to make no demands and to agree to everything that is proposed; just because it is easier. Women have a tendency to internalize all the cultural, societal, religious and historical characterizations that define us as the “fairer” sex. But let me make it clear that although there is a time and a place for taking a backseat, meetings with potential employers at the negotiation table should not be one of them.

It may seem hard to make demands when you feel that you are approaching the contract process from a place of inferiority. You may even feel that you lack sufficient knowledge to leverage any control in the process. But you have to muster the confidence to serve as your own advocate.

I attend annual meetings and conferences for medical professionals and the horror stories people tell regarding their contracts and work situations would make your hair stand on end. The situations can be downright criminal when there are special circumstances like visa requirements, malpractice settlements or negative hospital inquiries, etc. I know a very competent practicing female surgeon who makes under $100,000 and was required to cover the hospital surgery call schedule 24 hours a day for 4 months at two 200+bed hospitals all for the promise of a sponsorship for a US green card and permanent residency. It is mind-boggling that this beautiful, brilliant, hard-working woman did not think that she was worth more and even more disturbing that despite all our medical training, we are not provided with more business savvy and insight. Happily, through some back-door nudging that I am proud to say I encouraged, she was able to get her contract renegotiated and is living with a slightly better quality of life. But you cannot trust that contract renegotiation will be an option. Sometimes, it is two years later and you are so burnt out that leaving active practice seems a viable option.

Medical school and residency don’t include business classes. In certain cultures, women in the forefront making demands is frowned upon. It is clear that medical training should include more education that relates to contracts and contract negotiation, reimbursement, incentives, malpractice coverage, billing, etc. It’s preposterous that the first time you hear about a non-compete clause or tail coverage is when you are signing the next few years of your life away.

So how do we do this? How do we even approach this?

  1. You are a trained professional. You are a “hot” commodity! You are doing them and their patient population a favor by working for them. You do want to let them know what you can do for them and their practice. You should approach this process and the contract negotiations from a presumed position of power.
  2. Be sure you understand your own desires and needs (lifestyle, family plans, desired salary range, geographic preferences, career interests, work schedule, paid research hours, tenure options, etc).
  3. As a new graduate/physician, you will need to make some compromises to get more experience. But do not give up everything. Keep your soul! If you need two weekends every month to go river rafting or skiing or want two weeks in summer to travel through southeast Asia, then make sure you negotiate for that.
  4. MAKE A LIST. For first-time negotiations, renegotiation or any changes, do not approach the meeting without a written list of both needs you have and compromises you are willing to make to come to a satisfactory agreement. For my last contract re-up, my current employer just took one look at the list and agreed to every single thing.
  5. Read and Empower Yourself. Here are some suggestions:
    • Women Don’t Ask: Negotiation and the Gender Divide by Linda Babcock and Sara Laschever
    • Getting More: How You Can Negotiate to Succeed in Work and Life by Stuart Diamond
    • AWS Job Negotiations Resource by Dr. Margaret Dunn
    • Read the AWS Navigating Your Surgical Career Guide
  6. Have walkaway terms
  7. Lastly, make sure you have a contract lawyer familiar with physician contracts.

Melany Hughes, MD, MPH is a 2005 graduate of the Howard University College of Medicine. She completed her General Surgery internship and residency in 2010 at Howard University. She received a Master of Public Health Degree in Disaster Management and Emergency Preparedness (MPH) from Tulane University (TU) in 2012. While at TU she received a research appointment with the World Health Organization’s Center for Research on the Epidemiology of Disasters (WHO-CRED) in Brussels, Belgium. Her work focused on the analysis of both man-made and natural disaster-related trauma and injury patterns resulting in contributions to several multi-national collaborative research projects and publications. Following completion of her MPH degree, and with a continuing commitment to public service and humanitarian work, she served as a General Surgeon and Medical Officer with the U.S. Indian Health Service; providing healthcare to the Hopi and Navajo Nations in northwest Arizona. Dr. Hughes strives to practice “socially-conscious” general surgery and is currently employed as a private practice surgeon with Hafa Adai Specialist Group in Guam, USA.

Our blog is a forum for our members to speak, and as such, statements made here represent the opinions of the author and are not necessarily the opinion of the Association of Women Surgeons.

 

The Greenberg Spike: How speaking out on implicit bias and gender equity in surgery continues to trend

By Marissa A. Boeck

When #ILookLikeASurgeon went viral in August 2015, many expected a short lived hashtag. Yet Dr. Caprice Greenberg, the president of the Association for Academic Surgery (AAS), has shown the conversation on diversity, inclusion, and equity in surgery is far from over. During the recent AAS and Society of University Surgeons (SUS) 12th annual conference in Las Vegas, Nevada around 2,000 medical students, residents, fellows, and attendings gathered to network, mentor, collaborate, and discuss academic surgery. Despite the abundance of stiff competition, the AAS Presidential Address “Sticky Floors and Glass Ceilings” by Dr. Greenberg stole the show.

All those packed into the large event hall immediately knew the focus: women in surgery. This subject continues to be pertinent and necessary to discuss despite many notable advances, such as both the current and incoming presidents of the AAS and SUS being female. Yet Dr. Greenberg steered the conversation away from traditional topics of “women in surgery” as she asked us to rethink what issues actual female surgeons face. She argued the challenges do not boil down to only those associated with parenting. This is especially true since 40.5% of female surgeons do not have children, while 91.8% of male surgeons do, which is why we need to talk about parental challenges and leave versus simply maternity. She then spoke about widespread biases and discriminations against women seen throughout society that also resonate in medicine and surgery, using the Audi #DriveProgess 2017 Super Bowl ad, Huffington Post Pinksourcing video, and The Daily Show’s American Soccer’s Gender Wage Gap video as poignant examples. She showed data from a study of academic science faculty exemplifying hiring gender biases for lab managers based solely on applicant names.

Dr. Greenberg then honed in on specific items most relevant to surgeons: differences in salaries, promotions, and grant funding. The fact that in 2017, based solely on gender, with all other factors held equal or superior in females, women still earn less, fill fewer leadership roles, and have lower grant funding than men is unacceptable.

The impact of Dr. Greenberg’s talk was palpable. From individual goosebumps and frequent murmurs, to occasional outbursts of disbelief and, finally, tears. No one in the room appeared unaffected, women and men alike. An objective measure could be visualized on social media, where metrics for the conference hashtag showed a large spike of almost 750 tweets during the 45-minute talk, greatly overshadowing the other subjects of the day (Figure 1). The diversity-championing hashtag #ILookLikeASurgeon showed a similar increase during the same period (Figure 2), disseminating Dr. Greenberg’s important message to a global community that has likely faced similar challenges in their careers.

Figure 1.


Source: Symplur

Figure 2.

Source: Symplur

Besides firing everyone up for action, the most important part of Dr. Greenberg’s talk was the discussion of potential solutions. The global social media community agreed, as this appeared to be the most shared slide from a quick glance of the Twitter feed. Her suggested systemic interventions for surgery included:

  • Transparent, objective compensation plans
  • Blinded manuscript, grant, hiring, and promotion practices
  • Explicit, purposeful, and fair distribution of uncompensated teaching and service workload
  • Equal leave policies and tenure clock extensions
  • Objective measures of success and milestones for promotion that are defined a priori so everyone knows the rules
  • Institute educational programs on implicit bias and its impact

Only through the wide adoption of targeted actions that aim to recognize and address surgical workforce inequities, such as those listed above, can we actually hope to erase them. This includes organizations speaking up, such as the Association of Women Surgeons’ Statement on Gender Equality. Although frequently labeled as women in surgery problems, these issues cast a wider net, encompassing all those affected by implicit bias; in other words, potentially anyone. Yet together we can make surgery a field that accepts and promotes anybody who has the passion, stamina, and drive to succeed within a challenging but rewarding profession, irrespective of personal characteristics that have no bearing on one’s potential or worth.

Photo credit: Dr. Danielle Sutzko @LoupesLoveMD

Dr. Greenberg’s final slide starkly projected #ILookLikeASurgeon and #HeForShe in large white font on a black background, inviting the audience to continue the conversation, both on social media and in real life, until we all receive equal compensation and consideration for opportunities for professional and personal success.

From left: Nelly-Ange Kontchou, Heather Logghe, Caprice Greenberg, Marissa Boeck. Photo credit: Dr. Susan Pitt

Resources:
2017 AAS Presidential Address By Dr. Caprice Greenberg, Introduction by Dr. Rebecca Sippel
Ladies Get Paid (@ladiesgetpaid) – Helping women advocate for themselves to get recognized and rewarded
He For She (@HeforShe) – United Nations Women’s mission for gender equality
Why So Slow? The Advancement of Women by Virginia Valian
Carnes, Devine, Baier Manwell, Byars-Winston, et al. “The Effect of an Intervention to Break the Gender Bias Habit for Faculty at One Institution: A Cluster Randomized, Controlled Trial.” Academic Medicine 2015; 90(2): 221-230. Link


Marissa A. Boeck MD, MPH is a general surgery resident at New York Presbyterian Hospital – Columbia. She is passionate about diversity in the surgical workforce, the power of social media in medicine, and global public health, especially as it relates to injury prevention, emergency response, and trauma and surgical system strengthening in low-resource settings.

Our blog is a forum for our members to speak, and as such, statements made here represent the opinions of the author and are not necessarily the opinion of the Association of Women Surgeons.

The Intersection of Race and Gender in Surgery

By Mohini Dasari

In light of February being Black History Month, I was inspired to write about the intersection of race and gender in surgery. As a woman of color currently applying to surgical residency programs, the issues of diversity and gender have been on my mind for quite some time. While diversity can also refer to socioeconomic status, religion and sexual orientation, I will be focusing on one definition of diversity: race/ethnicity.

Why does race matter? Do we live in a post-racial society, where we can all identify together under broader terms such as “women”? Can all women identify under the single label of “women in surgery” within a traditionally male-dominated field? While I would like to say yes, for the sake of unity, I must say “yes and no.”

Whenever I go to national meetings, or when I was on the interview trail, I usually count how many women are there. While I’m sure many of us do this, I also find myself counting how many women of color I see— as leaders, speakers or panelists. Not surprisingly, when the number of overall women in leadership positions is small, the number of women of color is even smaller– a phenomenon termed as the “double blind”. As a future academic surgeon and woman of color, I find that this representation (or lack thereof) affects me on a personal level.

I was reading “Feminist Fight Club” in preparation for the AWS tweet chat, and the author made a great point about how the increased presence of women in meetings encourages more women to speak up. I posit that the same is true for racial diversity: when I see more people like me (women of color) in a group, I feel more empowered to speak up. I am grateful to have found some wonderful female surgical mentors in my career thus far. However, finding mentors who are also women of color is not always easy.

Is this to say that women of color must only seek mentors who are also women of color? Of course not. Just like current/aspiring female surgeons can have mentors of any gender, the same can be said for women of color who are seeking mentors. However, I think there are unique challenges that women of color face when trying to enter fields that are traditionally dominated by men AND by people who are not racial minorities. These challenges include but are not limited to implicit bias, microaggressions, lack of representation in leadership, and difficulty confronting stereotypes.

This post is intended to be a starting point to discuss the importance of the intersectionality of race and gender in surgery. As a woman of color and future female surgeon, I hope to serve as a resource and mentor for other women entering this field. As an inclusive community of female surgeons, I hope that we continue to have an honest discussion about closing both the gender and racial gaps in surgery. Recognizing these disparities is crucial to our mission of increasing diversity in surgery, in more ways than one.


Mohini Dasari is a fourth year medical student at the University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine. She is currently applying to general surgery residency programs, with career interests in global health, trauma and burns. She is the Mid-Atlantic Representative on the Association of Women Surgeons National Medical Student Committee. In her free time, she enjoys working out, writing, trying new restaurants, and spending time outside.

Our blog is a forum for our members to speak, and as such, statements made here represent the opinions of the author and are not necessarily the opinion of the Association of Women Surgeons.